What is a Process Flow Diagram | Lucidchart

A Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is a type of flowchart that illustrates the relationships between major components at an industrial plant. It's most often used in chemical engineering and process engineering, though its concepts are sometimes applied to other processes as well. It's used to document a process, improve a process or model a new one. Depending on its use and content, it may also

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Swimlane – Wikipedia

Ein Swimlane-Diagramm (auch Swimlane-Prozessdarstellung) besteht aus sogenannten Pools und Swimlanes; ein Pool repräsentiert oft Organisationen. Innerhalb eines Pools werden die an einem Prozess beteiligten Bereiche wie Personen, Gruppen, Abteilungen, Systeme oder Teilprozesse als „Schwimmbahnen" dargestellt; die durchzuführenden Tätigkeiten werden in Prozesskästchen

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Cold Rolling/Process Line | Steel Plants |

Through the abundant experience on plant engineering accumulated from POSCO's integrated steelworks in Pohang and Gwangyang and excellent construction methods, POSCO E&C has successfully implemented whole range of steel plant projects, both at home and abroad.

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Piping & Instrumentation Diagram, P&ID –

"Process equipment, valves, instruments and pipe lines are tagged with unique identification codes, set up according to their size, material fluid contents, method of connection (screwed, flanged, etc.) and the status (Valves – Normally Closed, Normally Open)." These two diagrams can be used to connect the parameters with the control system to develop a complete working process. The

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P&ID Symbols (Complete List & PDF) -

P&ID is the acronym for "Piping and instrumentation diagram", i.e. a very detailed diagram showing the processes happening within a plant, the involved equipment, and their interconnections. A set of standardized P&ID symbols is used by process engineers to draft such diagrams. P&ID symbols exist for all major components and lines, such as

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Quenching and tempering - tec-science

Depending on whether a high hardness ("hardening") or strength/toughness ("strengthening") has to be achieved, the final process, the so-called tempering, is carried out at different temperatures. When a steel has to become very hard, it is only tempered at relatively low temperatures in the range of 200 °C to 400 °C, while it becomes tougher and high load capacity at higher

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Swimlane – Wikipedia

Ein Swimlane-Diagramm (auch Swimlane-Prozessdarstellung) besteht aus sogenannten Pools und Swimlanes; ein Pool repräsentiert oft Organisationen. Innerhalb eines Pools werden die an einem Prozess beteiligten Bereiche wie Personen, Gruppen, Abteilungen, Systeme oder Teilprozesse als „Schwimmbahnen" dargestellt; die durchzuführenden Tätigkeiten werden in Prozesskästchen

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Metal Types and Recycling Process

When the products made of these metal bars come to the end of their useful life, the metal recycling process cycles again. Challenges for the Metal Recycling Industry The current overall metal recycling rate of around 30 percent is not acceptable, given the recyclability of almost every kind of metal, and challenges remain with respect how to recapture more material for recycling.

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Steel - Effects of heat-treating | Britannica

Steel - Steel - Effects of heat-treating: Adjusting the carbon content is the simplest way to change the mechanical properties of steel. Additional changes are made possible by heat-treating—for instance, by accelerating the rate of cooling through the austenite-to-ferrite transformation point, shown by the P-S-K line in the figure. (This transformation is also called the Ar1 transformation

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SURFACE PRETREATMENT BY PHOSPHATE CONVERSION

mild steel. 3. PHOSPHATING Phosphating process can be defined as the treat-ment of a metal surface so as to give a reasonably hard, electrically non-conducting surface coating of insoluble phosphate which is contiguous and highly adherent to the underlying metal and is consider-ably more absorptive than the metal [9]. The coat-ing is formed as a result of a topochemical reac-tion, which causes

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What is a Process Flow Diagram | Lucidchart

A Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is a type of flowchart that illustrates the relationships between major components at an industrial plant. It's most often used in chemical engineering and process engineering, though its concepts are sometimes applied to other processes as well. It's used to document a process, improve a process or model a new one. Depending on its use and content, it may also

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Continuous Galvanizing Line (CGL) | Steel

Continuous Galvanizing Line (CGL) The purpose of the Continuous Galvanizing Line (CGL) is to apply a coat of zinc onto the surface of steel sheets in an effort to increase their corrosion resistance. There is a wide range of control of zinc coat thickness, and the galvanized steel sheets are used for a broad range of purposes, including construction materials, automobiles and electrical

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Iron-Carbon Diagram | The influence of carbon

The actual iron-carbon diagram is far larger than the part shown here. At this point we only consider the area of the steel with a carbon content up to 2% maximum. Iron with higher carbon concentration exists – at this point the partial diagram of cast iron would follow, but

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Basic oxygen steelmaking - Wikipedia

Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, BOP, BOF, or OSM), also known as Linz–Donawitz-steelmaking or the oxygen converter process is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is made into steel.Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into low-carbon steel.The process is known as basic because fluxes of burnt lime or

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Metal blanking process by Advantage Fabricated

The blanking process forces a metal punch into a die that shears the part from the larger primary metal strip or sheet. A die cut edge normally has four attributes. These include: burnish; burr; fracture; roll-over; The illustration that follows provides a two-dimensional look at a typical blanking process. Note how the primary metal workpiece remains and the punched part falls out as scrap as

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ZINC ELECTROPLATING Zinc Electroplating - Pavco

primarily steel. Over the years there have been a number of processes developed for applying zinc coatings depending on the substrate, coating requirements and cost. Of these, electroplating is the most prevalent for functional and decorative applications. When choosing a zinc plating process, it is important to know what processes are avail - able and each of their particular advantages and

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Rolling of Metals: Process and Principles (With

In cold-rolling of steel, fluid lubricants having low viscosity are used, paraffin is suitable for non-ferrous materials like aluminum, copper and its alloys to avoid staining during subsequent heat treatment process, while, hot rolling is often carried out without lubricants but with a flood of water to generate steam and break up the scales formed, are used. Sometimes an emulsion of

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Heat Treatments: Softening: Annealing

Process Annealing: Process Annealing is used to treat work-hardened parts made out of low-Carbon steels (< 0.25% Carbon). This allows the parts to be soft enough to undergo further cold working without fracturing. Process annealing is done by raising the temperature to just below the Ferrite-Austenite region, line A 1 on the diagram. This temperature is about 727 ºC (1341 ºF) so heating it

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Application Example: Material Testing Material Properties

Forming - Forming Limit Diagram Fig. 1: Test arrangement Fig. 2: Different specimen geometries, from the entire blank to strongly waisted blanks Forming Limit Diagram The Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) together with the Forming Limit Curve (FLC) provide a method for determining process limitations in sheet metal forming and are used to assess the stamping characteristics of sheet metal materials

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Forming Limit Diagram - an overview |

Forming a limit diagram is determined by the appearance of fracturing and wrinkling of the cup at different forming pressures. Figures 8.19 to 8.22 show the forming limit diagram of ASTM-A36 structural steel in the case of constant forming pressure during the Marform process. The drawn curves separate the safe region from the unsafe region. By

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